Abstract Paintings DefinitionSource(Google.com.pk)
Original Paintings created before the 20th century were largely figurative — using artistic conventions such as perspective, they offered convincing pictures of the world as we knew it. Contemporary abstract paintings is often more emphasizing colors, shapes and textures, which results in more attention being focused on the picture surface itself. This has resulted in an extraordinary period of experimentation in which artists have used a huge range of materials to produce an exciting array of mixed media works.
By abstract painting artists have concentrated on generating a new awareness of surface and have succeeded by sale adding materials, by using impasto techniques, and by scraping and inscribing a surface to amplify the characteristics of each medium.
Abstract art uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world. Western art had been, from the Renaissance up to the middle of the 19th century, underpinned by the logic of perspective and an attempt to reproduce an illusion of visible reality. The arts of cultures other than the European had become accessible and showed alternative ways of describing visual experience to the artist. By the end of the 19th century many artists felt a need to create a new kind of art which would encompass the fundamental changes taking place in technology, science and philosophy. The sources from which individual artists drew their theoretical arguments were diverse, and reflected the social and intellectual preoccupations in all areas of Western culture at that time.
Abstract art, nonfigurative art, nonobjective art, and nonrepresentational art are loosely related terms. They are similar, but perhaps not of identical meaning.
Abstraction indicates a departure from reality in depiction of imagery in art. This departure from accurate representation can be only slight, or it can be partial, or it can be complete. Abstraction exists along a continuum. Even art that aims for verisimilitude of the highest degree can be said to be abstract, at least theoretically, since perfect representation is likely to be exceedingly elusive. Artwork which takes liberties, altering for instance color and form in ways that are conspicuous, can be said to be partially abstract. Total abstraction bears no trace of any reference to anything recognizable. In geometric abstraction, for instance, one is unlikely to find references to naturalistic entities. Figurative art and total abstraction are almost mutually exclusive. But figurative and representational (or realistic) art often contains partial abstraction.
Both geometric abstraction and lyrical abstraction are often totally abstract. Among the very numerous art movements that embody partial abstraction would be for instance fauvism in which color is conspicuously and deliberately altered vis-a-vis reality, and cubism, which blatantly alters the forms of the real life entities depicted.
The development of oil paint as the most common medium for oil paintings in Europe evolved slowly in the fifteenth century. Before this, a popular medium for painting on panel had been egg tempera, but it did not have the flexibility of pigments bound with a drying oil. Oil paint also had the capacity to be blended and manipulated on the surface of the abstract paintings, and its transparency allowed for a far greater range of tones and resonant colors.
The transition from egg tempera to oil paint in Northern Europe, and then in Italy toward the end of the fifteenth century, produced many examples of oil paintings in which the preliminary work was done in egg tempera, while later stages, such as thin transparent glazes, were applied in oil color. There are also examples of works in which egg and oil are contained in the same layer. Although the Dutch van Eyck brothers are popularly credited with the discovery of oil painting in the early fifteenth century — Jan van Eyck made progress developing the oil medium and using glazes — the use of oil-resin varnishes and drying oils is in fact quite well documented since the eighth century. Painters in Italy began to copy the Netherlandish way of modeling the underpainting in opaque colors, and then applying rich transparent glazes.
The progress of original paintings Fifteenth-century Italy saw artists such as Piero della Francesca whose early work is predominantly in egg tempera, coming to abstract painting with the new oil medium. In Venice, Giovanni Bellini began to exploit the depth and richness of tone and color that could be had with oil painting. He often worked first on an egg tempera underpainting, with its characteristic cross-hatched modeling, but the use of oil in the later stages of painting gave his figures an almost tangible existence. Perugino and Raphael were among other artists of the time working in both media. Raphael sustained the purity of the whites and blues in his skies by using the less yellowing walnut oil as a binding medium, rather than the linseed oil he used with other colors.