Modern Art Prints DefinitionSource(Google.com.pk)
Pablo Picasso dominated the development of the visual arts during the first half of the twentieth century. His virtuosity, imagination, and expressive power made an impressive contribution to the era of the arts. Picasso is best known as one of the creators of Cubism, though he utilized many styles during his career.
Picasso believed that since life is in violent flux, so also is art. He borrowed from his own past inventions in order to develop new ones. Picasso's Guernica (1937), often considered the greatest painting of the twentieth century, is an apocalyptic indictment of man's inhumanity to man. Broken bodies and broken forms are evoked by crude technique to define the savagery of war. Picasso purposely includes only those elements that contribute to brutality and fright, accentuating certain features, eliminating others. Meaning and form are interconnected. Guernica was painted as a protest against the bombing of the town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
After 1945, Picasso's artwork developed a more relaxed and gentle feeling. In 1973, Picasso died at the age of 92 at his villa in Mougins.
Do you have a print that you want to learn more about? Since artists often use printmaking media to create "multiples," how can you tell whether what you own is an original print or a reproduction copy? It can be difficult to answer these questions without taking the item to a museum print curator, auction house or certified art appraiser. The condition of a print will also be an important factor in determining its market value. To begin your research, look for a catalogue raisonné (a complete listing of the artist's works), if one has been published for that artist.
Traditionally, printing has been defined as the transferring of ink from a prepared printing surface (a wood block, metal plate or stone carrying the image) to a piece of paper or other similar material. Techniques include three basic types—the ink is on the raised parts of the printing surface (relief), in lowered grooves (intaglio) or on the surface itself (planographic). Common relief techniques include woodcuts and linocuts. Intaglio processes include etchings and engravings. Planographic processes include lithography and serigraphy. Each technique maintains the character of the marks made by the artist during the creative process. Other techniques include monotypes and digital prints or combinations of more than one technique.
Prints exist in multiples. Each impression is considered to be an original. The total number of prints (or impressions) made of one image is an "edition." The number may appear on the print with the individual print number as a fraction, such as 5/25, meaning this particular print is the fifth of twenty-five produced.
Reproductions are often incorrectly referred to as prints. Items advertised as fine-art prints or limited edition prints are sometimes photomechanical reproductions of paintings or drawings. Such reproductions use the same commercial printing processes used in producing magazine illustrations. The artist's involvement is not required. Reproductions have the virtue of being less expensive than originals, but they are not considered original artworks.
Print Information Resources
Cahn, Joshua Binion, ed. What is an Original Print? Principles Recommended by the Print Council of America. New York: Print Council of America, 1964.
Currier & Ives: A Catalogue Raisonné: A Comprehensive Catalogue of the Lithographs of Nathaniel Currier, James Merrit Ives, and Charles Currier, including Ephemera Associated with the Firm, 1834–1907. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1984.
Gascoigne, Bamber. How to Identify Prints. A Complete Guide to Manual and Mechanical Processes from Woodcut to Ink Jet, rev. ed. New York: Thames and Hudson, 2004.
Griffiths, Antony. Prints and Printmaking: An Introduction to the History and Techniques. London: British Museum, 1980.
Nadeau, Luis. Encyclopedia of Printing, Photographic and Photomechanical Processes. Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada: 1994.
Riggs, Timothy. The Print Council Index to Oeuvre-Catalogues of Prints by European and American Artists. Millwood, N.Y.: Kraus International Publications, 1983. (For an updated online version see
Art form consisting of the production of images, usually on paper but occasionally on fabric, parchment, plastic, or other support, by various techniques of multiplication, under the direct supervision of or by the hand of the artist. Such fine prints are considered original works of art, even though they can exist in multiple copies. The major techniques are relief printing, where the background is cut away, leaving a raised image; intaglio printing, where the image is incised directly into the plate; surface printing such as lithography, where the image is painted or drawn onto a stone; and stencil printing, where the design is cut out and printed by spraying paint or ink through the stencil. The history of printmaking parallels the history of art and is one of the oldest art forms. Though he had several predecessors, the first important engraver was a 15th-century German, Martin Schongauer. In the 16th century Albrecht Drer created prints of the highest quality, and in the 17th century the etchings of Rembrandt were especially fine. Japanese printmaking originated in the 17th century with the ukiyo-e school of woodcuts; the best-known artists were Hokusai and Hiroshige. Important 18th-century Western artists who made prints include William Hogarth, Francisco Goya, and Giambattista Piranesi. Among the works of 19th-century printmakers, those of Honor Daumier and of many of the French Impressionists are notable. Experimentation in new styles and new directions proliferated in the 20th century, with artists from the century's major movementsincluding Expressionism, Surrealism, Pop art, Minimalism, and Neo-Expressionismall pursuing printmaking. engraving; etching; mezzotint; woodcut.