Red Abstract Art DefinitionSource(Google.com.pk)
Red abstract art:
The term 'abstract art' - also called "non-objective art", "non-figurative", "non-representational", "geometric abstraction", or "concrete art" - is a rather vague umbrella term for any painting or sculpture which does not portray recognizable objects or scenes. However, as we shall see, there is no clear consensus on the definition, types or aesthetic significance of abstract art. Picasso thought that there was no such thing, while some art critics take the view that all art is abstract - because, for instance, no painting can hope to be more than a crude summary (abstraction) of what the painter sees. Even mainstream commentators sometimes disagree over whether a canvas should be labelled "expressionist" or "abstract" - take for example the watercolour Ship on Fire (1830, Tate), and the oil painting Snow Storm - Steam Boat off a Harbour's Mouth (1842, Tate), both by JMW Turner (1775-1851). A similar example is Water-Lilies (1916-20, National Gallery, London) by Claude Monet (1840-1926). Also, there is a sliding scale of abstraction: from semi-abstract to wholly abstract. So even though the theory is relatively clear - abstract art is detached from reality - the practical task of separating abstract from non-abstract can be much more problematical.
The basic premise of abstraction - incidentally, a key issue of aesthetics - is that the formal qualities of a painting (or sculpture) are just as important (if not more so) than its representational qualities.
Let's start with a very simple illustration. A picture may contain a very bad drawing of a man, but if its colours are very beautiful, it may nevertheless strike us as being a beautiful picture. This shows how a formal quality (colour) can override a representational one (drawing).
On the other hand, a photorealist painting of a terraced house may demonstrate exquisite representationalism, but the subject matter, colour scheme and general composition may be totally boring.
The term "Non-Objective Art" (also known as concrete art) describes any type of abstract art (including abstract sculpture) which is wholly devoid of any reference to the natural world. This category of non-representational painting and sculpture typically uses geometrical imagery, which is one of the few sources of non-naturalistic motifs. Hence it is also referred to as geometric abstraction. The term non-objective art was first used by the Russian Constructivist artist Alexander Rodchenko (1891-1956) in the titles of some of his pictures (eg. Non-Objective Painting: Black on Black 1918, MoMA, New York). It was then taken up by others, such as his compatriot Kasimir Malevich (1878-1935) - the inventor of Suprematism - who wrote (in 1919) "In referring to non-objectivity, I wish to make it clear that Suprematism is not concerned with things, objects, etc."
In contrast to the unemotional, geometrical iconography of concrete art, abstract expressionism is a much more emotional, sentimental and derivative form of abstraction. It may not be representational, per se, but its shapes, colours and overall design is typically based on natural world associations. Thus neither Jackson Pollock's "action-painting", nor Willem de Kooning's gesturalism, nor Mark Rothko's or Barnett Newman's "colour field painting", is classified as concretism.
Geometric forms of abstract painting had appeared long before the term concrete art. Islamic art, for example, is famous for its geometrical designs such as the "infinite pattern", as are common Celtic designs such as spirals, mazes, knots. Later, 20th century movements like Cubism (1908-14), Futurism (1909-14), and De Stijl (1917-31) all used the genre, as did Kandinsky as well as schools like the Bauhaus Design School. It was also prevalent in the international section of the famous Armory Show. But the genre was given extra attention when the term first appeared in Van Doesburg's Manifesto of Concrete Art, which was issued in Paris in 1930. Van Doesburg argued in favour of a type of abstract art that would be entirely free of any basis in observed reality - a form also devoid of any symbolic implications. He stated that: "The work of art should obtain nothing from nature's formal properties or from sensuality or sentimentality... Technique should be mechanistic, that is to say exact and anti-impressionistic." In effect, Doesburg wanted to create a totally independent and self-contained form of art, which focused exclusively on itself. He saw no need for any imitation of nature, or linear perspective to create a false 'depth' to the painting, because he thought that nothing was more concrete (or more real) than a line, a colour, or a plane (a flat area) of colour.
Sadly, Van Doesburg passed away a year after issuing his manifesto, but his ideas were continued and developed by the Abstraction-Creation group - led by the Belgian artist Georges Vantongerloo (1886-1965) and the French painters Jean Helion (1904-87) and Auguste Herbin (1882-1960) - whose members included the cream of European abstract sculptors, such as Jean Arp (1886-1966), Naum Gabo (1890-1977), El Lissitzky (1890-1941), Antoine Pevsner (1886-1962), Barbara Hepworth (1903-1975) and Ben Nicholson (1894-1982). (Note: several of these artists later moved to non-geometric art forms, such as lyrical or biomorphic/organic abstraction).
Concrete art was later exemplified by the spiralling abstract sculpture of the Swiss ex-Bauhaus architect, sculptor and designer Max Bill (1908-94), who publicized and popularized the genre in his own country - notably, by organising the first international exhibition of concrete art in Basel in 1944 - and also introduced it to Italy, Argentina and Brazil. In keeping with the Swiss talent for minimalist graphic design and poster art, Bill's works have been seen as precursors of minimalism in sculpture. There is a museum of Concrete art in Zurich, Switzerland.
Other abstract art movements include: (in Russia) Rayonism (Larionov), Suprematism (Malevich) and Constructivism (Rodchenko); (in Germany) the Bauhaus Design School; (in Holland) Neo-Plasticism and Elementarism; (in Italy) Movimento d'arte concreta (MAC); (in France) Espace; (in America) Hard Edge Painting (Ellsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland and others); and Clement Greenberg's Post-Painterly Abstraction, including Shaped Canvas (Frank Stella).
Two important collectors of concrete art include Solomon R Guggenheim (1861-1949), and Peggy Guggenheim (1898-1979).